In recent years, with the rapid development of China’s high-speed rail, nuclear power, marine, petrochemical and aerospace industries, and the continuous expansion of the machinery industry, industrial standards have continued to increase, and the requirements for sheet metal machining technology have become higher and higher. Traditional machining technologies and processes have become increasingly difficult to adapt to the new market environment. In this context, sheet metal machining technology is rapidly developing in the direction of high precision, efficiency, specialization, scale and automation.
Moldless multi-point forming
Moldless multi-point forming is an advanced manufacturing technology that combines multi-point forming technology and computer technology, which can save time and money spent on complex processes such as mold design, manufacturing, debugging and modification during product development and manufacturing. Significantly shorten the development and production cycle, and can respond quickly to product upgrades.
(1) Main characteristics. Realize moldless forming of plate parts, saving mold materials and design and manufacturing costs. In the past, due to the high cost of the mold, single-piece and small-batch parts that had to be formed by hand could be used to achieve standard forming through multi-point forming technology and improve the forming quality.
Can process many different shapes of parts on the same equipment. It is also possible to form large-sized parts on a small device that are several times or even dozens of times larger than the forming area of the device.
Achieve variable path forming of plate parts. By adjusting the height of the punch to control the forming surface, the deformation path and stress state of the plate can be changed at will, the degree of material deformation is increased, the plastic deformation of difficult-to-machine materials is achieved, and the machining range is expanded.
It is easy to realize CAD / CAE / CAM / CAT integration and automation of forming process. In multi-point forming, the surface modeling and process planning of the parts are all completed by a computer. Computer technology is used for the numerical simulation of the workpiece detection and forming process, and the equipment is also controlled by the computer, which is conducive to automation.
Shorten the development cycle of new products. Multi-point forming does not require a mold, which saves a lot of time in mold design, manufacturing and debugging, which can greatly shorten the development cycle of new products and reduce manufacturing costs.
(2) Practical application. Sheet metal moldless multi-point forming equipment can be applied in the fields of aircraft, spacecraft, various vehicles, ships, ships, medical engineering, pressure vessels, building decoration and urban sculpture. For example, the National Stadium-Bird’s Nest construction project uses a large number of box-shaped members welded by bending and twisting steel plates. The bending and twisting shapes and sizes of each component are different, and the thickness of the high-strength steel plate used varies from 10mm to 60mm The amount of rebound has also changed a lot. After adopting the multi-point forming technology, not only the molding effect similar to that of the mold forming is realized, but also huge mold cost is saved, and the forming efficiency is also improved dozens of times. This technology realizes the digitization of the medium and thick plate parts from the design to the forming process, and satisfactorily solves the problem of three-dimensional curved surface forming of steel structural components in Bird’s Nest construction.
The general development trend of laser cutting machining equipment is higher power, faster speed, larger format, thicker cutting, brighter section and straighter section. At present, the development of the laser industry is becoming more and more dynamic. The power technology of fiber lasers and the corresponding optical component technology continue to make breakthroughs, which will inevitably promote the installed power of laser cutting machines. The key technologies breakthrough in 10,000-watt laser equipment are as follows:
(1) Light source technology. To achieve a laser power of more than 10,000 watts, reliable and stable light source technology is required first.
(2) Beam conduction technology. The entire optical path of laser conduction must be strictly sealed, there must be no medium exchange with the outside world, and optical devices must be installed and cleaned in a clean space.
(3) High dynamic design and servo drive. Develop high-rigidity, high-strength, light-weight mobile functional components, use the finite element FEM algorithm, adopt high-stability structure, supplemented by high-response, high-precision servo drive to improve the dynamic performance of the overall transmission chain.
(4) Intelligent cutting control system. The intelligent cutting control system can analyze the data fed back from the cutting status monitor in real time, and adjust the cutting process parameters accordingly, control the cutting auxiliary gas components, change the focus position, ensure the machining quality and improve the machining efficiency. The main functions are intelligent focus search, high-speed punching, and cutting status monitoring.
(5) Anti-heat source penetration technology in the cutting area. During the cutting process, the energy density of the 10,000-watt laser can reach 50kW / mm2 after focusing. In addition to acting on the processed plate, a large amount of energy is transmitted through the slit to the machine bed. Therefore, heat insulation and anti-burning measures are especially important. It is prominent, such as increasing the strength and rigidity of the supporting board of the cutting board, increasing the width and thickness of the sword grid, and using cutting-resistant materials.
(6) Ultra-high-speed, steady-state airflow nozzle technology. When a 10,000-watt laser is used to cut 50mm thick stainless steel, the test results prove that the Lafar nozzle is the best structural form of the high-pressure thick plate rapid cutting process. Its ultra-high-speed, high-pressure steady-state airflow acts on the slit inlet and the inside of the cut. Forms stable and high-quality cuts.
High energy beam machining
High-energy beam cnc machining technology uses high-energy-density beams as heat sources and materials to achieve the removal, connection, growth, and modification of materials. It has become more and more widely used in difficult-to-machine materials, automotive, and aerospace parts manufacturing. application. Usually includes laser machining, electron beam machining, and ion beam machining.
In addition to the cutting mentioned above, holmium laser machining is also widely used in drilling, welding, surface treatment, marking, and semiconductor machining. It involves automobiles, electronic appliances, precision machinery, transportation machinery and other fields.
Electron beam machining and ion beam machining have also been greatly developed in recent years, and have been widely used in precision micromachining. Generally, electron beam machining is mainly used for drilling and welding, and ion beam can be used for plasma cutting and plasma arc welding.
From the traditional rough and low-efficiency forming process to the correct size method to the unfolding and direct forming advanced process method is an inevitable trend in the development of manufacturing technology. Today, science and technology promote economic development. The sheet metal machining industry must introduce advanced technology, invest in advanced equipment, continue to develop new processes, and work hard in the direction of mechanization, automation, and digitalization to keep up with the trend of the times and promote the further development of sheet metal machining.